PUBLICATIONS
IRGSC
IRGSC Research Working Paper
Working Paper No:
WP No. 1
Title:
Post disaster governance, complexity and network theory: evidence from Aceh, Indonesia after the Indian  Ocean Tsunami 2004. PDF
Abstract
This research aims to understand the inter-organizational network typology of large scale disaster intervention in developing countries and to understand
complexity of post disaster intervention through the use of network theory based on empirical data from post tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, during
2005-2007. The findings suggest that the ‘degrees of separation’ (or network diameter) between any two organizations in the field is 5. There are significant
amount of loops in the network which reflects typical ‘small-world’ realities and therefore made no significant difference with the real human networks as found
in previous experiments. The findings show the landscape of humanitarian actors is not randomly distributed. Many actors were connected to each other through
certain hubs, while hundreds of the actors make ‘scattered’ single ‘principal-client’ links. The paper concludes that by understanding the distribution of degree,
centrality, ‘degrees of separation’ and visualization of the network, authorities can improve their understanding of realities of coordination from macro to micro
scales.
Keywords:
Large scale disasters, post disaster governance, complexity, network theory, cluster approach, managing complexity, Indian Ocean Tsunami
Author(s):
Jonatan A. Lassa
Date
August 2012
Working Paper No:
WP No. 2
Title:
The evolution of risk and vulnerability in Greater Jakarta: contesting government policy in dealing with a megacity’s exposure to flooding. PDF
Abstract
Greater Jakarta experiences high and vast economic development and population growth over the last three decades. As a home to more than ten million
population and over two million daily commuters, the future of the city depends on innovative strategic planning and creative governance for sustainability. The
development and expansion of Jakarta are driven by market though local-global drivers facilitated by formal-informal mechanism. While the cities develop
tremendously, their exposures to hazards and vulnerabilities increase. With the future scenarios of climate change impacts (i.e sea level rise and floods) coupled
with urban environmental problems (e.g. poor waste management, high sedimentation of river channels), Jakarta has a potential to experience series of black swan
events as in January 2013 flood and it may become an unsustainable city. As the protection against flood risks through adaptive infrastructures is lacking, people
and their assets are more exposed to flood risks. This paper highlights the development of Jakarta and it’s social-economic-environmental vulnerability.
The paper uses formal statistical data, flood historical data and secondary sources to examine the evolution of flood risks in Jakarta over the last three decades.
This paper asks: what are the main factors that contribute to the evolution of risks in Jakarta? The findings reveal that there is barely connection between
government policy related to flood control and the metropolitan development which lead market to shape the unsustained development outcomes exemplified by
the fact that built-up areas in Jakarta have been more exposed to flooding uncontrollably. One of the recommendations suggests fundamental reform in the
existing megacity planning because that Jakarta and Greater Jakarta needs a grand design for 2100. Fundamental reform in urban planning regimes in Indonesia
especially Jakarta is necessary. The Jabodatabek needs a grand design for 50 and 100 years anticipating more 'black swan' and future climate extremes.
Keywords:
Development, floods governance, Jakarta, Greater Jakarta, flood risk
Author(s):
Saut Sagala, Jonatan A. Lassa, Hadian Yasaditama and Delik Hudalah
Date
January 2013
Working Paper No:
WP No. 4
Title:
Public Private Partnership in Disaster Reduction in a Developing Country: Findings From West Sumatra, Indonesia
Abstract
Local governments in developing countries often experience gaps in resource to address overall stock of disaster risks and vulnerabilities because there are many
other competing urgencies and priorities. Therefore, alternative risk reduction financing is necessary to fill the gaps. This justifies the need for a new form of risk
governance by inviting non-state actors such as civil society and private entities to collaborate in risk reduction. This collaboration emerges as form of disaster risk
governance namely public-private partnership under the coordination of plus civil society. This paper asks what drives local firms participate in
public-private
partnership in reducing risks in Indonesia? The case presented here is based on the empirical work of Public Private Partnership for Disaster
Management (P3DM)
in West Sumatra, Indonesia. The paper concludes that the nature P3 in West Sumatra is characterized by high degree of informality and
flexibility in their
partnership.
Keywords:
public-private partnership, disaster reduction, Civil society organisation, Tsunami preparedness, West Sumatra, Indonesia
Author(s):
Jonatan A. Lassa
Date
April 2013
Working Paper No:
WP No. 3
Title:
Conceptualizing an established network of a community based flood early warning system: Case of Cawang, East Jakarta, Jakarta. PDF
Abstract
Application of social network analysis to the study of early warning systems is not yet available. This paper conceptualizes the established practice of a real world
flood warning system in Cawang, Jakarta.  This paper uses social network analysis in visualizing the transmission of flood warning messages in Cawang,
Jakarta. It
concludes that social network analysis is a powerful and promising tool to understand end-to-end early warning systems.
Keywords:
Early warning systems, community based, flood warning, social network, Ciliwung, Jakarta
Author(s):
Jonatan A. Lassa, Saut Sagala, Adi Suryadini
Date
February 2013
Working Paper No:
WP No. 5
Title:
Actors’ Interaction In Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction in West Java Earthquakes 2009
Abstract
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan pemahaman mengenai proses interaksi berbagai pihak yang terlibat dalam kegiatan rekonstruksi rumah di Kecamatan
Pangalengan sebagai dampak gempa bumi Jawa Barat Tahun 2009. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kaulitatif dan difokuskan penggambaran pola oleh
peran yang diambil oleh aktor yang terlibat dan mengeksplorasi interaksi mereka. Interaksi aktor 'disajikan dalam pengukuran statistik dan analisis jaringan sosial.
Penelitian ini menemukan terdapat 41 pelaku yang terlibat dalam rekonstruksi perumahan di Kecamatan Pangalengan dimana 18 aktor menjadi aktor sentral (ego).
Berdasarkan analisis jaringan sosial dan proses rekonstruksi perumahan, studi ini menyimpulkan bahwa proses interaksi antara mereka tidak optimal.
Keywords:
Recovery, post disaster reconstruction, social network analysis, stakeholders, earthquakes
Author(s):
Saut Sagala, Fernando Situngkir, Ramanditya Wimbardana and Jonatan A. Lassa
Date
May 2013
Working Paper No:
WP No. 6
Title:
What are the roles of Civil Society in Governing Disaster Reduction? Case Study from National and Local Levels in Indonesia?
Abstract
Risk governance concept promotes the empirical power (such as government, market and civil society) that co-exists to govern risk and catastrophe.  This paper
highlights evidence of disaster risk governance at national and local levels in Indonesia. Drawing upon the strength of social network approach, it specifically
analyzes and presents the network of actors in disaster risk reduction policy reform in Indonesia where civil society plays vital roles. Two case studies are
provided to exemplify the roles of civil society at local level. The paper concludes that disaster reduction policy reform at different levels in Indonesia have been
equally coproduced by civil society, local governments, national government and international actors.
Keywords:
social network analysis, civil society, disaster governance, risk governance, disaster policy making process, legitimacy, Indonesia.
Author(s):
Jonatan A. Lassa, Dominggus Elcid Li, Rudi Rohi, Yosef Boli Sura
Date
June 2013
Working Paper No:
WP No. 7
Title:
Future of Latrines and the Future of Civilization: Understanding Cultural Barriers and Opportunities in West Timor
[An anthropological Survey of Sanitation in West Timor, Indonesia]
Abstract
Bahasa: Tulisan ini merupakan ringkasan dari penelitian antropologi budaya terkait air dan sanitasi (WASH) di Nusa Tenggara Timur. Fakta empirik yang
digunakan dalam riset ini adalah dari Kecamatan Takari dan Amabi Oefeto Timur di Kabupaten Kupang. Penggunaan metode antropologis membantu menjelaskan
mengapa terjadi pertumbuhan pembangunan sanitasi yang sangat lambat. Tulisan ini berkontribusi pada debat akademis terkait sanitasi dan public health secara
umum di NTT, khususnya Kabupaten Kupang. Versi berbahasa Indonesia ini adalah versi ringkas dari tulisan 25 halaman berjudul "The Anthropology of WASH
in Rural West Timor: A Socio-anthropological Study" yang dikirimkan ke ACF International dan ke sebuah peer review academic journal.  
PDF Bahasa

English: This study uses antrhopological approach to understand culture of Atoni people in Kupang District (NTT, Indonesia), in particular the culture of
sanitation, water and hygiene. It asks how the locals (atoni) in general perceive about ideal WASH practices and actual everyday in their daily life and what kinds
of social-cultural/economic or environmental incentives that shape practices, beliefs and habits (PBHs)? This working paper is a shorted version from the 25 page
report entitled "The Anthropology of WASH in Rural West Timor: A Socio-anthropological Study" submitted to ACF International".
PDF English
Keywords:
Anthropology of sanitation, WASH, water, sanitation, hygiene, sanitation culture
Author(s):
Dominggus Elcid Li, Jonatan A. Lassa, John Talan, Yosef Boli Sura, Randy Banunaek, Nike Frans dan Indriyani Takesan
Date
June 2013
Working Paper No:
WP No. 8
Title:
Impact of climate change on agriculture and food crops: options for climate smart agriculture and local adaptation in East NusaTenggara, Indonesia
Abstract
Impact of climate change on agriculture may manifest in the form of deficit in yields from rain-fed agriculture (due to water stress and temperature change) and
reductions in crop growth period (e.g. changing patter of onset of rain days and the changing nature of dry spells).  Researchers have shown that every 1°C
increase in the minimum temperature, rice yields decrease between 10-25%.  Small farmers are more vulnerable to the change therefore they will be affected most
by climate extremes. Overall, climate change have put more pressures in local food systems especially production sub-systems. In Sumba Island, small farmers
often face production deficit due to erratic climate condition and changing patter of rainfall. In addition, farmers often face difficulties in growing enough main
crops such as maize because of the shocks in production often lead to seed deficits for the next planting seasons. Access to alternative seeds is limited due to lack
of ability to pay for seeds in the local market which in many cases not suitable for the local climate. While the local government often has their own budget cycle
that is not compatible with the farmer's seed demand and local climate system as they often lately distribute seeds and other means to farmers. The erratic
climate of NTT has strongly impacted the local food system especially the seed availability and therefore food security in general. Subsistence farmers often loss
their seed due to harvest failure especially when dry spell occurs soon after planting corn or either harvest were rotten as the rain come coincidentally. In this
paper we identify some of the innovation in water use efficiency and water management at crop levels such as mulching, water diversification measures and
agro-forestry system being exercised by a few successful farmers. We propose some of the interventions such as dripping irrigation for (mainly for cash crops)
agriculture, rainwater harvesting, identification (and re-introduction) of some drought resistant seeds, building a sustainable local seed systems, participatory
breeding, livestock adaptation measures and improvement of existing agroforestry as well as knowledge management.
Keywords:
climate change, agriculture and food security, seed system, food system, agro-forestry, water management, abiotic and biotic stress
Author(s):
Jonatan A. Lassa, Yosep Seran Mau, Dominggus Elcid Li and Nike Frans
Date
January 2014
ISSN 2339-0638
Working Paper No:
WP No. 10
Title:
Micro-finance for community based sanitation as a tool for climate adaptation and risk management tools: A case study from Semarang City, Indonesia
Abstract
This paper presents good practice and lesson from a community based sanitation microfinance initiative that recently adopted by Kemijen Village in Eastern part
of Semarang City, Indonesia. The paper argues that micro-finance can be used as a community based adaptation planning of Semarang City if the conditions for
sustainability can be controlled by local actors at the village level. The methods used in this study include: un-structured interviews with local communities, and
relevant stakeholders in Semarang city. Secondary sources include project reports, accounting reports and existing literature on Semaran
Keywords:
micro-finance, urban adaptation, community based approach, inundation, ACCCRN, Semarang City, Indonesia
Author(s):
Jonatan A. Lassa and Jawoto Setyono
Date
April 2014
Working Paper No:
WP No. 9
Title:
Building Urban Resilience to Climate Change in the Secondary Cities in Indonesia
Abstract
The Bandar Lampung City has taken several necessary steps in planning and building resilience to climate change. This paper investigates the evolution of
institutional transformation and policy change in the City of Bandar Lampung.  It highlights the experience on how the city adapting to climate change through
modified urban development policy. Overall, the city demonstrates a new and unique form of urban climate governance within Indonesia context. A collective
decision making body namely City Team (comprises of city departments, university based experts and academia and civil society organizations) has been formed
to temporarily function as mandated body that assesses climate risks and vulnerability, sets and prioritizes problems and programs, pilots small scale adaptation
projects, plans for city-scale adaptation intervention and functions as climate advocates within the city.  This paper highlights how Bandar Lampung evolves as
climate change ignorant city to be a climate change sensitive city as indicated by the shifts in planning, policy and budget. Challenges and barriers and policy gaps
and lessons learnt are discussed.
Keywords:
climate change, agriculture and food security, seed system, food system, agro-forestry, water management, abiotic and biotic stress
Author(s):
Jonatan A. Lassa and Erwin Nugraha
Date
February 2014
Working Paper No:
WP No. 11
Title:
Linking Food Security, Climate Adaptation and Carbon Management
Abstract
This paper addresses the reduction of carbon emission as a global climate mitigation imperative and considers the negative impacts of climate change on food
production. It argues that, in order to ensure that climate adaptation, food security and climate mitigation objectives are mutually achieved, local level intervention
is necessary. The case study shows local level action where efforts achieving food security through mutual adoption of climate adaptation (e.g. drought and soil
erosion management through land and water conservation measures) and carbon mitigation. The research questions how food security, adaptation (through drought,
water and soil erosion management) and carbon management objectives are achieved at local level. Constraints and opportunities are discussed from a local context
in Indonesia.
Keywords:
micro-finance, urban adaptation, community based approach, inundation, ACCCRN, Semarang City, Indonesia
Author(s):
Yulius P. K. Suni  and Jonatan A. Lassa
Date
Agustus 2014